entanglement in global economic strains
- Integration into global markets (with a volume of billions of dollar) of multinational enterprises.
- Object of (international) private patents.
- International industrial marketing.
- Growing demands due to population growth and increasing consumption quantities.
- Shift of roles – concerning Asian countries often towards the role of exporting raw materials and importing ready products.
- Decline of earlier local professions and possibilities of livelihood.
interdependence with ecological processes
- Overexploitation and overconsumption of natural resources.
- Endangerment and loss of biological resources with their unique aromatic notes and character, resulting in a decline of biodiversity.
- Mass cultivation, often including the use of pesticides and fertilizers and followed by their effects on local ecosystems and human health.
- Distribution of synthetic substitutes in nature, followed by their specific effects on ecological systems and human health.
expression of profound cultural changes
- Change of consumption habits (towards mass-consumption and preference of fashionable international products).
- Loss of traditional skills of recognizing, growing, refining and appreciating aromatics.
- Loss of (phyto-) therapeutic resources, knowledge and skills.
- Loss of earlier olfactory knowledge.
- Neglect of effective methods of preventive und curative healthcare, in favor of (often costly) synthetic remedies.
- General detachment from nature, followed by the so-called ‘nature deficit disorder’ with its typical mental and physical health symptoms.
Links for taking up further research on this topic